Allergy And Asthma in Modern Society: A Scientific Approach
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In the chapter on the hygiene hypothesis, the sections on environmental factors and the role of infections driving the atopic phenotype will be of special interest to those in the clinic. It is well written and edited, the photographs are of excellent quality, and the quality of printing and illustrations is appropriate and in keeping with the earlier titles published in the same series.
Aber auch der Grundlagenforscher kann von der bewertenden Zusammenfassung erfahrener Wissenschaftler und von den Hinweisen auf weitere Literaturquellen in seinem speziellen Themenbereich profitieren. Allergic diseases and asthma constitute a growing health care problem with a marked socioeconomic impact, especially in industrialized countries.
Use of unproven allergy tests is common in Australia and New Zealand
This book summarizes what is currently known about the mechanisms underlying these diseases. Obviously, both environmental and genetic factors influence the development of allergic and asthmatic diseases. Several chapters highlight the role of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and T cells, as well as environmental factors in the development of allergy and asthma.
Also discussed are the most recent therapeutic strategies including allergen-specific immunotherapy and anti-IgE treatment as well as the function of histamine as a major mediator of acute inflammatory and immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The interdisciplinary character of this book is documented by articles from various fields such as environmental, molecular, and cellular biology, allergy and dermatology.
Representing an excellent collection of state-of-the art reviews, this publication is indispensable for all scientists working in allergy and asthma and for clinicians treating allergic and asthmatic patients.
Severe Asthma: Novel Concepts & Therapeutics | The New York Academy of Sciences
Bibliographic Details. Chemical Immunology and Allergy previous Vol. Library Recommendation. The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules, postage and handling.
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- Epidemiology of Respiratory Allergies and Asthma.
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- The history of asthma: Development, understanding, and treatments.
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While this promoted widespread CS use, despite being effective in many, CSs were remarkably ineffective in others. Yet the reasons for this heterogeneity, particularly obvious in severe asthma, were unclear.
Whole genome transcriptional analysis and targeted biologic therapies have greatly expanded our understanding of this heterogeneity. Concurrent studies of targeted biologic therapies showed efficacy over that of CS and long acting beta agonists.
Thus, molecular phenotypes of Type-2 Hi asthma were consistently recognized. However, even Type-2 Hi asthma is highly heterogeneous, with differing responses to T2 targeted therapies despite associated biomarker elevation. Some severe asthma may also go beyond T2 inflammation alone. Type-1 inflammation is increasingly recognized as playing a role in some, often in combination with T2 inflammation. A role for Type inflammation is less clear. Additional metabolic abnormalities may also contribute to worsening refractory T2 and non T2 inflammation.
Thus, our understanding has allowed us to identify molecular phenotypes of asthma. Identifying an endotype requires linking a particular pathologic pathway as central to a clinical phenotype, through targeted approaches, which should improve the disease in every case.
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- Allergy and Asthma in Modern Society: A Scientific Approach!
Regulation of Chronic Inflammation Speaker. We are employing gnotobiotic mice to examine the influence of defined beneficial microbial communities on intestinal and peripheral immune cell development, function and influence on tissue homeostasis. Our recent findings indicate that beneficial microbes have a significant regulatory influence on lymphocyte, innate lymphoid cell and granulocyte function associated with susceptibility to cancer and multiple infectious, inflammatory and metabolic disease processes.
We have also developed a number of translational immunology projects, including analysis of tissue samples from patients with diseases of the barrier surfaces including atopic dermatitis, food allergy, obesity and IBD.
Allergy and Asthma in Modern Society: A Scientific Approach
It is hoped that the results of these basic and translational studies will advance understanding of the pathophysiology of multiple diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and cancer and provide a framework to test new therapeutic pathways to prevent and treat these diseases. James Martin, MD. T2-high asthma is associated airway hyperresponsiveness AHR , an exaggerated response to inhaled methacholine and other bronchoconstrictive agonists.
The excessive airway narrowing is mediated by contraction of airway smooth muscle ASM. ASM ex vivo does not show an increase in contractile properties, therefore modulation of ASM properties by inflammatory mediators is the likely culprit for AHR. Although the effector subset that these cells comprise is as yet uncharacterized, it seems plausible to consider that many will be Th2 cells.
Contact-dependent prolongation of T cell survival also occurs and may contribute to chronicity of disease. Proliferation of ASM is expected to reduce contractility of ASM but this may be transient whereas the acquisition of increased ASM mass will in itself promote bronchoconstriction.
Among the T2 cytokines interleukin IL has been most explored for its effects on bronchoconstriction. No such experiments appear to have been done, so far, on larger mammals to test the relevance of the murine models for human asthma. Several cytokines have been shown to augment ASM responses ex vivo. Treatment of ASM in culture with IL causes an enhanced calcium transient after stimulation with a contractile agonist and an enhanced force generation. The predominant effect of these treatments has been to reduce exacerbation rates, although some biologics also improve baseline lung function.
Whether any of these therapeutic effects are mediated by direct actions on ASM is unclear. Seblewongel Asrat, PhD. Nevertheless, the source of IgE serological memory remains controversial.