Culture Bumps: An Empirical Approach to the Translation of Allusions (Topics in Translation)
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Moreover, Jaaskelainen divides this into two types, namely global strategies and local strategies: "global strategies refer to general principles and modes of action and local strategies refer to specific activities in relation to the translator's problem-solving and decision-making. Newmark b mentions the difference between translation methods and translation procedures.
He writes that, "[w]hile translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of language" p. He goes on to refer to the following methods of translation:. Newmark writes of a continuum existing between "semantic" and "communicative" translation. In order to clarify the distinction between procedure and strategy, the forthcoming section is allotted to discussing the procedures of translating culture-specific terms, and strategies for rendering allusions will be explained in detail.
Defining culture-bound terms CBTs as the terms which "refer to concepts, institutions and personnel which are specific to the SL culture" p. Notes can appear in the form of 'footnotes. Nida advocates the use of footnotes to fulfill at least the two following functions: i to provide supplementary information, and ii to call attention to the original's discrepancies. A really troublesome area in the field of translation appears to be the occurrence of allusions, which seem to be culture-specific portions of a SL.
All kinds of allusions, especially cultural and historical allusions, bestow a specific density on the original language and need to be explicated in the translation to bring forth the richness of the SL text for the TL audience. Appearing abundantly in literary translations, allusions, as Albakry points out, "are part of the prior cultural knowledge taken for granted by the author writing for a predominantly Moslem Arab [SL] audience. To give the closest approximation of the source language, therefore, it was necessary to opt for 'glossing' or using explanatory footnotes. Proper names, which are defined by Richards as "names of a particular person, place or thing" and are spelled "with a capital letter," play an essential role in a literary work.
For instance let us consider personal PNs. They may refer to the setting, social status and nationality of characters, and really demand attention when rendered into a foreign language. There are some models for rendering PNs in translations.
One of these models is presented by Hervey and Higgins who believe that there exist two strategies for translating PNs. Hervey and Higgins refer to the former as exotism which "is tantamount to literal translation, and involves no cultural transposition" p. However, they propose another procedure or alternative, as they put it, namely cultural transplantation. Regarding the translation of PNs, Newmark a asserts that, "normally, people's first and sure names are transferred, thus preserving nationality and assuming that their names have no connotations in the text.
The procedure of transference cannot be asserted to be effective where connotations and implied meanings are significant. Indeed, there are some names in the Persian poet Sa'di's work Gulestan, which bear connotations and require a specific strategy for being translated. Newmark's a solution of the mentioned problem is as follows: "first translate the word that underlies the SL proper name into the TL, and then naturalize the translated word back into a new SL proper name.
As it seems it is only useful for personal PNs, since as Newmark a , ignoring the right of not educated readers to enjoy a translated text, states, it can be utilized merely "when the character's name is not yet current amongst an educated TL readership. Leppihalme proposes another set of strategies for translating the proper name allusions:. Moreover, nine strategies for the translation of key-phrase allusions are proposed by Leppihalme 82 as follows:. Although some stylists consider translation "sprinkled with footnotes" undesirable, their uses can assist the TT readers to make better judgment of the ST contents.
In general, it seems that the procedures 'functional equivalent' and 'notes' would have a higher potential for conveying the concepts underlying the CSCs embedded in a text; moreover, it can be claimed that a combination of these strategies would result in a more accurate understanding of the CSCs than other procedures.
Various strategies opted for by translators in rendering allusions seem to play a crucial role in recognition and perception of connotations carried by them. If a novice translator renders a literary text without paying adequate attention to the allusions, the connotations are likely not to be transferred as a result of the translator's failure to acknowledge them. They will be entirely lost to the majority of the TL readers; consequently, the translation will be ineffective. It seems necessary for an acceptable translation to produce the same or at least similar effects on the TT readers as those created by the original work on its readers.
This paper may show that a translator does not appear to be successful in his challenging task of efficiently rendering the CSCs and PNs when he sacrifices, or at least minimizes, the effect of allusions in favor of preserving graphical or lexical forms of source language PNs. In other words, a competent translator is wll-advised not to deprive the TL reader of enjoying, or even recognizing, the allusions either in the name of fidelity or brevity. It can be claimed that the best translation method seem to be the one which allows translator to utilize 'notes.
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Leppihalme, R. Culture bumps: an empirical approach to the translation of allusions. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Loescher, W. Translation performance, translation process and translation strategies.
Tuebingen: Guten Narr. Newmark, P. About Translation: Multilingual Matters.
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Volume 11, No. Overview Allusions are often translated literally while their connotative and pragmatic meaning is largely ignored. The conclusion recommends that translators should take the needs of readers into account when choosing translation strategies for allusions, and that university-level language teaching and translator training should pay more attention to the biculturalisation of students. Product Details About the Author.
Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. About Translation. Peter Newmark's third book is an attempt to deepen and extend his views on translation. He goes easy on theories and models and diagrams and offers a few correlative statements to assist translators in finding a variety of options and View Product.
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