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Chapter 7: Metabolism. Chapter 8: Cellular Respiration. Chapter 9: Photosynthesis. Chapter Cell Cycle and Division.
Chapter Meiosis. Chapter Classical and Modern Genetics. Chapter Gene Expression. Chapter Biotechnology. Chapter Viruses. Chapter Nutrition and Digestion. Chapter Nervous System. Chapter Sensory Systems. Chapter Musculoskeletal System. Chapter Endocrine System.
Chapter Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems. Chapter Regulation and Excretion. Chapter Immune System.
Chapter Reproduction and Development. Chapter Behavior.
SEMINAR/STUDY TOUR IN THE U.S.S.R. ON GENETIC SELECTION AND HYBRIDIZATION OF CULTIVATED FISHES
Chapter Ecosystems. Chapter Population and Community Ecology. Chapter Biodiversity and Conservation. Chapter Speciation and Diversity.
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Chapter Natural Selection. Chapter Evolutionary History. Full Table of Contents. Embed Share. Comparative Population Genetics and Its Implications The gene pools of natural populations may vary significantly. Human Health and Population Genetics Population genetics can also be used to investigate the genetic variation within and among human populations. Suggested Reading. Locus : A particular location on a chromosome at which the information for a given trait is hosted.
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Allele : The different forms of a gene hosted at a given locus. An example of this would be different forms of a gene determining the color of a flower on a plant. The genes corresponding to yellow, purple and red are different alleles that sit at the locus determining color.
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Genotype : The genetic makeup of an organism that determines what trait it exhibits; the particular alleles present at the locus of interest e. Phenotype : The physical manifestation of a particular genotype e. Mutation : A change in the genetic code of an individual that causes a change in a particular trait. This can be the result of a mistake in replicating genetic code and can be deleterious harmful , advantageous useful or neutral no effect.
Mutations can be passed down through generations and either will be bred out or bred into a population slowly. Selection : If a particular trait is helpful to an organism allows it to produce more offspring , then it will naturally become more prevalent through several generations of evolution. This process is called selection and will be described in more detail after the introduction of some mathematical concepts. Population : The group of organisms being studied.
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In general we will consider a fixed, large population size over many generations. Population variability The goal of our previous discussions in this class has been to understand the inheritance of a single trait, a trait that may be controlled by one, a few, or many genes. The goal of population genetics is different. Rather than studying the inheritance of a trait, population genetics attempts to describe how the frequency of the alleles which control the trait change over time. To study frequency changes, we analyze populations rather than individuals. Furthermore, because changes in gene frequencies are at the heart of evolution and speciation, population and evolutionary genetics are often studied together.
For a population of individuals to succeed over evolutionary time, it must contain genetic variability. Because we do not know all the genetic variables that would predict evolutionary success, we study the variability of different phenotypes and genotypes to provide an overview of the population. The traits that are analyzed can be outward phenotypes that can be easily scored.